List of Volumes

Volume 1, 2020

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Highlights of the Study of Sound for Animation: Designing Sound with a Low Budget

Authors: Teoh, Lee Suan Jasmine; Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: There is a noticeable amount of research on sound design, with emphasis on the importance of sound in media. This article touches on the highlights of sound in animation, in terms of the challenges of sound design and how to overcome them. The researcher hypothesizes that ‘Good quality sound in animation can be created with a low budget’. A new understanding on the topic of sound design and animation was proposed, while applying the knowledge from existing research by other scholars. Sound design can be accomplished with a reasonable budget and it involves the sound designer to create sound through movements and feelings. These were the conclusions made by the researcher based on the research findings that were obtained through two qualitative methods of research (online interview and visual analysis), in which the findings were presented, analysed and discussed. This article may contain faults and errors as it is still a crude study on the topic itself. Further research is needed for a more detailed justification of the current conclusions.

Keywords: Sound design, animation, low budget productions, sound performance, sound perception, Foley

Empathy for Fictional Characters

Authors: Teoh, Hoong Boon Julius; Noorhayati Saad
Institution The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Character design is often regarded as one of the most popular mediums in the field of creative multimedia. Reasons for this can range from aesthetic appeal to affinity towards the characters. A decent amount of research and study has been done throughout the years, formulating a basic pipeline and standard for a good character design. One such standard is that of storytelling via a character and creating characters that are relatable, believable, and invoke empathy in the observer. This research delves into how a character conveys and aids in the development of a story and the value behind creating believable and relatable characters. Data from various demographics was collected via an online survey and a visual analysis was conducted. Based on the findings, the researcher discovered that while the general audience may not have experience in design or media, they are still able to appreciate well-developed characters. The visual analysis also shows that recent characters designed to carry a fair trace of storytelling and elements to make them seem more believable or life-like. Hopefully these findings helps in enlightening up and coming as well as adept character designers in the value of creating deeper, more meaningful characters.

Keywords: Character design, narrative, concept art, game design, player engagement.

Exploring Children’s Learning Experience Created by Design Elements in Interactive Books

Authors: Saraswati, Katarina Indira Dyah; Koh, Chai Lin Pouline; Yip, Jinchi
Institution The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Books play an important role in the teaching and learning for children. Unfortunately, digital devices are slowly taking a steady control over individual lives, making books become a less important learning tool. Despite the children’s book industry innovating and revolutionising to bring children back to reading books in print, there has not been much attention paid to the interactivity among children and the design elements used in interactive books. Through observation, this study examined the learning experience through interactive books with two groups of Malaysian and Indonesian children aged between 5 and 8. In addition, the influence of design elements to these children when reading the books were further investigated. Results revealed that when reading interactive books, response is the most significant compared to interactivity and engagement. The spontaneous responses are associated with the design elements used in the interactive books. The elements of surprise created by pop-ups and pull-tabs are the most appealing ones to the children. Not only were they visually engaged with these elements, they also interacted and actively responded with each other during the reading process. The findings of this study show that children’s learning experience can be a more enjoyable process if emphasis is paid to using appropriate design elements when designing an interactive book.

Keywords: Graphic design, interactive books, interactive elements, childhood reading, learning method of children

The Role of Whitespace in Visual Communication Design

Authors: Aminath, Rausha; Koh, Chai Lin Pouline; Yip, Jinchi
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Designers use whitespace as a design element to create visual aesthetics and enhance layouts. However, most designers fail to consider the importance of whitespace in readability and navigation control. There are limited research studies on its importance and role in enhancing layouts in relation to these functions. To study the role whitespace plays in designs, this study was conducted by adopting a visual analysis of 4 layouts and a survey of 54 respondents. Evaluation of Active Whitespace (AWS), Passive Whitespace (PWS), the readability and navigation control were conducted by providing samples with manipulation of different levels of whitespace. Notably the results showed that although a significant number of people prefer access to more information which they see as a guide for good navigation, the majority believes that the less they see, the more they can focus resulting in easier readability and navigation as it created a simple and aesthetical layout for viewers. The results indicate that there is a significant importance of whitespace in the readability of websites, articles and posters.

Keywords: Whitespace, graphic design, advertising, design principles, visual communication

The Preliminary Findings of UX Design on Social Media Saputra,

Authors: Tamara Audrey; Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Many social media that had once gained fame, have now suddenly dimmed and vanished. However, there are similar social media that have remained shining. Social media has become an integral part of our lives that we spend hours on it. This article reveals the preliminary findings of the influence of the user experience on social media engagement and the elements of user engagement that support the viability of social media. Consequently, the research answered the questions of how UX design influences user engagement in social media and the elements that help to sustain its viability. In this context, user engagement refers to both passive consumption and active participation within the social media platforms. An online survey with 136 participants and visual analysis of three established social media, namely Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat was conducted. Analysis of the survey responses showed that UX design influences user engagement through both pragmatic and hedonic qualities. Meanwhile, the visual analysis demonstrated patterns of persuasive and emotional design. Based on the results, it emphasizes the need for creating an application that is not only usable but also exciting and also to integrate persuasive and emotional design in order to remain viable in the market.

Keywords: User experience, design, social media, persuasive.

Cultural Identity and Promotional Designs in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

Authors: Wong, Zen Yee Zoe; Koh, Chai Lin Pouline; Yip, Jinchi
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: With the tourism boom happening in Sabah, its capital city Kota Kinabalu (KK) has improved its necessary and supporting infrastructure in the industry. However, when those infrastructures outshine the original cultural identity of KK, not only the perception towards the cultural identity of KK seem unclear among the younger generations and tourists, many of its existing promotional designs are found duplicated from other parts of the world. This is perceived to be lack of originality. It is believed that cultural identity translated through creative works are highly associated to economies of innovation and tourism. Thus, in this research two focus groups and a total of 104 surveys were conducted with the objective to examine the perception of the cultural identity and its existing promotional designs in KK. Results showed that the tourism advertisements overshadowed the cultural identity of KK where its actual identity was hard to be identified among the respondents. The research also disclosed that the respondents are only able to distinguish the cultural identity of KK through mural artworks done by locals, but not historical heritage artifacts. The findings provide insights and consideration for the town council and local artists to rethink the importance of preserving KK’s cultural identity as a consequence to the continuous growth of tourism in the city.

Keywords: Cultural identity, promotional design, Kota Kinabalu, tourism, city branding

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Elements of Maldivian Folklore Character Design

Authors: Ahmed Baahy Suhail; Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University

Abstract: This article will revolve around the conceptualization of a Maldivian folklore character design. The use of character design in raising awareness towards Maldivian culture is justified. The methodology which is used to create a Maldivian character is explained using the elements of character design learned and these are intended for future use of animated folk tales. Animation can help to not only preserve a dying element such as Maldivian folk culture and reconnect locals to their cultural roots, but also appeal to a global audience that has not yet seen such an intimate side of the Maldives, which is currently only recognized through tourism. A questionnaire and survey were put forward to locals and experts respectively in order to gather information that would help towards this. Secondary sources were also evaluated to better understand character design and the main elements that must exist within a character. The findings reflect the opinion and perspective of Maldivian locals which are pivotal to the overall success of this future character. From these findings, the author was able to establish the main elements required for a successful and authentic Maldivian folklore character design.

Keywords: Character Design, Animation, Culture, Folklore, The Maldives

Graphic Design and Public Awareness in Lifesaving

Authors: Chan, Qian Hui; Yip, Jinchi
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University

Abstract: In the field of lifesaving where public awareness plays a major role, graphic designers are one of the underutilized assets who could potentially educate the public on the role of lifesaving. This research aims to provide designers an insight on using effective design principles to educate the public on lifesaving and brings light onto the research topic. The research investigates the importance of graphic design specifically posters in educating the Malaysian public about the role of lifesaving. A survey was conducted to collect feedback from 80 Malaysians regarding their awareness on lifesaving and effectiveness of lifesaving posters. Professionals and students from the medical and design field were interviewed to comment on 6 current lifesaving posters in terms of accuracy of information and design. This research finds that existing lifesaving posters are not following the principles of graphic design. Additionally, the contexts of posters are not accurate as there is inconsistency in information on the steps of lifesaving while some even miss out crucial information. Although graphic design in lifesaving is on the rise recently in Malaysia, the current public awareness on this topic is still low in Malaysia.

Keywords: Lifesaving, graphic design, public awareness, CPR, AED

Player Identification in Relation to Character Customisation

Authors: Pung, Daryl Xi Ern; Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University

Abstract: In our modern era, technology is constantly developing and evolving in different ways. Throughout the years, the ever-expanding list of game genres is becoming increasingly diverse, bringing in new revolutionary elements that could significantly shape a specific category. The subject of video games usually focuses on gameplay mechanics, and most players believe this to play a vital role in creating a successful game. While that may be true, what many tend to ignore is the impact of character customisation. The influence on the inclusivity of customisable characters is an area that is often ignored in the field of video game and character design research. As it was revealed that there was a significant correlation between the player’s identity and their character’s appearance, this article takes an in-depth look at the factors that influenced players in determining the portrayal of their character during character customisation. Additionally, the type of character customisation was wholly dependent on the game’s genre. This will be further elaborated and discussed in the findings.
Keywords: Customisation, Characters, Video games, Identification

The Use of Design Elements and Principles in Movie Posters

Authors: Wong, Kai Yi; Yip, Jinchi
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia

Abstract: Designers apply the use of design elements and principles (DEP) in movie posters to convey an intended message. This article touches on the four main DEP used in movie posters as well as how they are used to convey an intended message. This article discusses how DEP are used in movie posters to bring out the intended message. For the research, two methodologies were employed to curate six movie posters from three movie genres (horror, fantasy and romance). The two methodologies include visual analysis and survey by questionnaire. From the visual analysis, the researcher determined the four main DEP in movie posters which are imagery, typography, colour and overall composition. Through both methodologies, it was found that imagery is the most prominent of the four DEP in conveying the message of a movie. The researcher discusses how the DEP used in movie posters work together to bring out the setting, mood, character, genre, and overall message of the movies. These findings expand our understanding on the use of DEP in movie posters which affect how the message of a movie is conveyed.

Keywords: Graphic design, design elements, design principles, movie posters

Volume 2, 2021

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The Highlight on the Study of Hybridity Between Japanese and Indonesian Style Character in ‘Wayang’

Authors: Angelia, Helen; Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Abstract With the advancement of technology, Japan has influenced most people in the world with its animation development, preserving and promoting their cultures, including Indonesia. In this modern era, the younger generations mostly kept updated about trending topics from other countries but were unaware of their own country’s cultural values. They didn’t know that local Indonesian culture itself, especially ‘Wayang’ could be modified into a great creation like any other. Many artists have tried to conserve the culture in many ways, but some of their works are not accepted by the locals, and it is still not enough to attract the youth. This article highlights the possibility of a style hybrid between Japanese animation and traditional Indonesian ‘Wayang’ to help preserve the culture without disregarding authenticity. The results of the findings will help the public understand that there are many ways of preserving their country’s local culture in this modern era, with one of them being to create and develop a new brand of animation that has been adored by many people for a long time, in a way it will not disregard the culture.

Keywords: Wayang, Hybridity, Culture, Animation, Character Design

The Preliminary Discovery of Key Aesthetic Elements That Contributes to the First Impression of Business Websites

Authors:Inthavong, Piyaphon; Noorhayati Saad
Institution The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Excessive growth of online businesses in today's world has risen in an endless stream of competition, where the first impression of business websites take responsibility for the instantaneous decision-making factor of Internet users. These factors have been closely studied in a number of studies, which have revealed the mysterious roles of visual aesthetics and their significance in the perceived credibility of websites, and hence the article intended to reveal the findings with regard to the key aesthetic elements responsible for these impressions on business websites. The conclusion was drawn from a quantitative approach in which over 100 respondents participated in survey forms to provide their insight into the most

Keywords: First impression, Visual aesthetics, Business websites.

Semiotics in Advertising and Its Relationship with Viewer Persuasion

Authors: Jenani Raja Saker; Yip, Jinchi
Institution The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: This research seeks to find the relationship between the application of semiotics in advertising and the relationship with viewer persuasion. Deploying the research methodology of visual analysis and a focus group study, the researcher's primary goal is to explore effective deployment methods of semiotics in advertisements, as well as to find out the elements of semiotics that trigger viewer persuasion. This research is therefore an in-depth study about the role of semiotics in advertising and how the semiotic method can be used to achieve the goal of advertising, which is viewer persuasion. It also describes the elements which make semiotics an effective tool in advertising and also determine the possible failures and ineffective methods of using it in advertisements. Using semiotic analysis, the researcher determines the process in which meaning is perceived and how it could be interpreted by viewers. It is found that semiotics plays a large role in delivering a message from the advertiser to the viewers and is also useful in convincing the viewers to take action. However, it is imperative to perform a semiotic analysis involving the contextual and historical study of the advert that is being put out to ensure that the intended meaning and the perceived meaning are the same. It can be concluded that, with the correct usage of semiotic in advertisements, much benefit can be found to the advertiser.

Keywords: Visual Semiotics, Advertisements, Graphic Design, Visual Communication, Viewer Persuasion

A Review of 3D Animation Pre-Production in Ideation

Authors: Leviani, Arletta; Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: There is a creative team behind amazing animation that works behind the scenes, making new stories for us to enjoy. Today, animation has become commonly used as a platform to tell a story; John Lasseter, director of Cars 3 animation, said, “Making an animated film takes at least four to five years, sometimes longer. So at Pixar, we never make a movie unless we have come up with a really great idea, one we’re excited to work on every day for all those years” (The Art of Cars 3, 2017). Using secondary interviews as qualitative methods to find answers from professionals who work in 3D animation and reviewing different research papers has also been essential. These different sources help this article find the pre-production process in 3D animation. This review of interview and research papers are compiled and discussed.

Keywords: Animation, 3D Animation, Pre-Production

Visual Elements in Packaging Graphic Design and Brand Identity

Authors: Manurung, Gaby Gladys Ulibasa; Yip, Jinchi
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: In a world driven by consumerism, brands are continuously displayed all around us. Due to this, it is essential for brands to establish a recognizable and unique brand identity to be distinguishable from brand and products. To create a successful brand identity, the visual elements on products and packaging must effectively reflect the brand’s identity. Therefore, this study looks into the role of visual elements in primary packaging in helping to relate a product to its brand identity. This research focuses on four soda brands and how these brands utilize their visual elements to differentiate their brand. An online about the visual elements (colours, logos, symbols, and typography) on the primary packaging of four soda brands (Sprite, 7-Up, Fanta and Mirinda)was conducted. The author also conducted a visual analysis by studying the visual elements on the same four soda brands featured in the survey. The findings of the research suggest that the visual elements on the primary packaging of the studied soda brands create associations that allow the sodas to be unique, which helps the consumers to familiarize themselves with the brand and relate the products to their brand identity.

Keywords: Visual elements, Packaging, Graphic Design, Brand Identity, Soda Brands

The Balance Between Aesthetics and Functionality in Packaging Design

Authors: Tjhai, Jessica; Yip, Jinchi
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Packaging design has become a major component in conveying brand’s messages and values to the consumers. It also helps in getting a brand clearly identified from other brands in the market and it has become a strong marketing tool in promoting a brand to a consumer. Aside from the aesthetics, the functionality also plays a major part in the packaging, as it plays an important role in creating a great experience for the consumer. Therefore, this study focuses on the balance between aesthetics and functionality in packaging design, specifically in beauty product packaging design with the purpose to explore the role of aesthetic packaging design concerning its function and explore about how far the aesthetic of a packaging could be utilized. In this research, quantitative and qualitative approaches were used as part of the research methods. An online survey was distributed and 42 participants responded. Besides that, four email interviews with experts in packaging design field were also done. Based on the findings, the results indicate that aesthetics and functionality in packaging design are two very important aspects in promoting the quality of a product. The aesthetics in a packaging could attract customers and make them feel interested about a certain product, while the functionality in a packaging could maintain the costumer’s loyalty towards the brand due to the quality of the product.

Keywords: Packaging design, graphic design, aesthetics, functionality, beauty product

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A Preliminary Study on the Visual Outcome of Hybrid Animation

Authors: Farissa Eryna, Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Due to the technological advancements that exist in our modern era, there are numerous software and systems being developed to produce a specific art style of an animation. Throughout the years, since the first animation was created in 1908 which was in the traditional hand-drawn style, the list of animation genres is becoming more diverse, bringing in new approaches that could significantly manipulate the visual outcome of the characters, environment, objects and more. The subject of animation usually focuses on the storyline such as the plot, and most audiences believe that this is the most vital part of a successful animation. While that may be true, what many tend to ignore is the impact of the art style and visual appeal that exists in animation.

In this article, the author dove deeper into the topic to fully understand if the combination of2D and 3D animation elements will create a more visually appealing outcome. In addition to that, the author seeks to further explore and analyze the methods and processes of combining the two mediums. The researcher will also delve into into the software and systems used to achieve either 2D or 3D style animations. Findings from the methodologies will be discussed throughout the article in detail.

Keywords: Hybrid Animation, Visual Style, 2D Animation, 3D animation

Graphic Design as a Tool for Change: Conservation of the Maldivian Culture Through Graphic Design

Authors:Mariyam Hanan As-ad; Yip, Jinchi
Institution The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: The Maldives is widely known for its natural beauty, but what is less spoken about is its rich culture. Unless and until efforts are made to sustain it, aspects of the Maldivian culture will disappear with time. This research aims to study the utilisation of graphic design as a tool for change in context of the conservation of the Maldivian culture and is targeted towards Maldivians. The objective of this research is to better educate Maldivians about their culture through graphic design, to better conserve the Maldivian culture, to raise awareness on lesser-known aspects of the Maldivian culture as well as to aid Maldivians in gaining better appreciation of the local culture. To achieve the said objectives, data was gathered via online interviews and a Google Forms survey. From the data acquired, the researcher concluded that the lack of sufficient cultural education and resources on the Maldivian culture contributed to Maldivians lacking in knowledge of their local culture. However, there is evidently interest to learn more about it and that Maldivians have a growing sense of appreciation for their local culture. Apart from that, through the analysis of existing designs integrating the Maldivian culture, the researcher is confident that the application of Maldivian cultural elements in designs across various media is effective in the education and conservation of the local culture in the Maldives and that it can be used to shed light on lesser-known aspects of the Maldivian culture.


Illustrations in Advertisements

Authors: Park, Hyoungyoon; Yip, Jinchi
Institution The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Illustrations have been developed throughout the time from traditional painting to digital painting that are now being favored in advertisements (commonly called adverts or ads in short). The aim of this research is to discuss how advertisements use illustration in marketing and to find out the impacts, strengths, and weaknesses. An online survey of 55 participants and a visual analysis was conducted to collect data. This study was the conclusive result of exploring the purpose of the use of illustration in adverts. The findings showed the roles of illustration of how it communicates, attracts the audience in addition to building the brand image. The research also showed a few factors that affect the impacts of the illustrations. Such as towards adverts that need to demonstrate its exact image of the place, goods or services, photography was best fitted, and age groups also played an important factor. Overall, the use of illustrations impacted participants positively as attractions along with interactions and triggering their emotions as well. The study concludes by how critical it is to use visual elements such as illustrations in advertising to communicate and attract attention.

Keywords: Advertisements, digital illustrations, visual elements, advertisement posters, advertisement illustrations, graphic art

The Importance of Suitable Visuals in the Sociopolitical Use of Graphic Design

Authors: Tayyab, Seerat; Yip, Jinchi

Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to understand the importance of suitable visuals in the sociopolitical use of graphic design in order to convey a message successfully. This research looks at the rise of digestible content on social media and how it differs from historical examples of sociopolitical graphic design. To explore this, a visual analysis was conducted on selected examples from both categories. Additionally, a survey of 90 participants was also conducted via an online questionnaire in order to further understand why meaningful graphic design is important in conveying a message successfully. The research concludes that the visuals need to be suited and responsibly used in order for audiences to completely and wholly understand the message.

Keywords: Activism, Instagram, Symbolism, Cyberactivism, Graphic Design

The Overview of Tangible Elements to Create a Culturally Significant Character Design

Authors: See, Zi Yi; Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Cultural significance allows people to identify a culture through visual representations. It is vital to showcase cultural significance in character design to create a memorable and commercialisable animated character design. However, due to the lack of cultural characteristics in Mainland Chinese animations, the country’s animation appears uncompetitive. Moreover, previous works have failed to address the tangible elements to create a culturally significant character design. Hence, the researcher was determined to further discuss the tangible elements in this article. To achieve this objective, a cross-comparison visual analysis was conducted on the character design of Nezha, a well-known deity of the Chinese mythology, with Nezha from the Mainland Chinese animations such as Nezha Conquers the Dragon King (1979), and Nezha (2019). Moreover, the finding of the online survey indicated clothing is the most influential tangible element to evoke cultural significance in character design. The findings of this study would expand the understanding of the tangible elements to create cultural significance in animated character design.

Keywords: Character design, culture, cultural significance, Chinese culture, animations

The Design of Educational Games in Teaching History

Authors: Yumnu, Aishath; Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Video games are increasingly being used in classrooms for educational purposes due to the immersive quality they have. This research aims to understand the design features of a well-designed educationalgame and study how games can be used in education, especially in teaching history. This article puts forward visual analyses of two games, a questionnaire and email interviews with two experts in education to answer these questions. It can be noted that the main features of games that make them useful in teaching are their visuals, challenges, and narratives. Experts also believe that games that discuss historically accurate information should be used. Results show that gamification techniques such as points and leaderboardsare an important part of motivating students to learn.

Keywords: Gamification, design, education, history, video games

Volume 3, 2022

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An Overview Understanding of Character’s Emotion in Animated Films

Authors: Chan, Huei Lian; Saad, Noorhayati
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Undeniably, a character's emotion is the core of an impactful animated film. Effectively portraying emotions through animation allows the audience to connect emotionally with the characters, empathising with them throughout the plot. However, it is a challenge for animators to create authentic emotions in believable characters. Therefore, the understanding of emotion is essential knowledge to be gained. Thus, this paper reveals the critical aspects of a character's emotion by observing a 3D animated film as an example. This paper aims to learn the significance of emotion portrayal in animated films and the factors required in producing animated films that accurately portray characters' emotions, allowing the audience to perceive them. A mixed methodology research method was utilised while conducting primary research. Consequently, it has been discovered that facial expression in animation plays a vital role in characters' emotions. In addition, a good understanding of psychological theories, such as 6 Basic Human Emotion, Wheel of Emotion, and Facial Action Coding System (FACS), allows animators to study the relationship between emotion and the facial expression of the character.

Keywords: 3D Animated Film, Character Facial Expression, Emotion Psychological Theory, Audience Perception

The Preliminary Findings of UI/UX Design for the User Engagement of Food Delivery Applications in Malaysia

Authors: Lew, Se Win; Saad, Noorhayati
Institution The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: The market for food delivery applications in Malaysia has rapidly expanded as they allow users to receive food more conveniently. User engagement is essential to the long-term survival of food delivery applications in today's market. Hence, this study will reveal the role of UI/UX design in engaging users in food delivery applications (FDAs) because there is still a lack of user engagement in the UI/UX design of FDAs in Malaysia. Meanwhile, the research will examine whether UI/UX design improves interactions between FDAs. Four food delivery applications in Malaysia, Grab, Foodpanda, Pop Meals, and EASI, were chosen for this research. Nonetheless, this shows a gap in the study because Pop Meals only serves meals from its restaurant while others operate with various restaurants. Mixed methods are used in this research, with a questionnaire for quantitative and observational studies for qualitative methods. Thus, a few UI/UX design essentials have been discussed to study user engagement in UI/UX designs, a few UI/UX design essentials, such as ease of use, clarity, efficiency, conciseness, consistency, and attractiveness. The results showed that an ideal UI/UX design could increase FDA user engagement, but the popularity of FDAs is likewise essential.

Keywords: UI/UX Design, user engagement, public awareness, food delivery applications.

Initial Findings of Dark Pattern Expulsion

Authors: Lim, Jia Sheng; Saad, Noorhayati
Institution The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract:Dark patterns exploit affordances found in User Interfaces (UIs) to manipulate human behaviour into doing things they otherwise would not have. Such as making the more emphasised option agree to a privacy-invasive action or adding items to a user’s cart as they move through the checkout process. These behaviours, whilst not technically illegal, diminish the experience of using digital platforms and should be the target of expulsion to the highest degree as our lives increasingly revolve around the digital world. This article thus attempts to find a way to stop dark patterns’ application in the digital world, conducting a survey and focus group on achieving such an aim. Finally, enough information and knowledge were provided to get a few conclusions. These include the first: dark patterns affect people, and most people not only understand that fact once educated, but they also agree that it is malicious. Besides that, a second conclusion, too: a solution to this problem may be achieved; however, it would be complicated, and cross-field ideas may be the ones that successfully pull off dark pattern expulsion.

Keywords: User interface, digital world, expulsion, privacy invasion.

Promoting Environmental Sustainability: The Role & Influence of Graphic Design Elements on Packaging

Authors: Dorcas, Lim Jie Shi; Yip, Jinchi
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract:Graphic design—a visual language—has become one of the most powerful mediums of communication that is unconfined by any limitations of human usage. However, the impact of graphic design on packaging design and its influence towards raising awareness and promoting environmental sustainability issues are rather untouched. Thus, this article seeks to discuss research carried out to investigate the role and influence of graphic design elements on packaging towards promoting environmental sustainability. A survey was conducted where four packaging were shown to the participants to rate the graphic design element concerning its effectiveness, comprehension, and influence. A total of 90 responses were accumulated whereby it was discovered that graphic design elements on packaging have a role in engaging, motivating, and educating environmental sustainability and as a result promotes positive influence to the public in regards to sustainable activities. Additionally, it was also discovered that visual and verbal elements were the most effective in conveying information about environmental sustainability. Despite that, the researcher also observed that even though graphic design elements are effective in raising awareness and promoting environmental sustainability, it requires great skills from packaging designers to produce effective, sustainable packaging.

Keywords: Graphic Design, Design Elements, Packaging, Environment, Sustainability

The Roles and Impact of Malaysian Street Art in the 21st Century

Authors: Loke, Yeanne Tung; Yip, Jinchi
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Street art possesses a very old history, dating back to prehistoric inscriptions. Malaysia also has its fair share of street art as well. However, it is a controversial topic in the public eye as to whether street art is considered vandalism or illegal in Malaysia. This research highlights the roles and impact of Malaysian street art illustrations in the 21st century and aims to study whether the illustrations of street art can be a culture in the community or a cultural image of the place and also to study if the different types of street art can bring about cultural appreciation or bring a negative impact on the cultural image of the place. The research was conducted using mixed methods, a total of 111 surveys were distributed online with open-ended and closed-ended questions included. Mixed methods were chosen as public perception is crucial in determining whether street art can provide value or have an impact on the community and a survey is a good way to get information from the general public. The results and findings indicated that a successful street art project should have local cultural aspects such as tradition, heritage, custom, and ethnicity incorporated to convey the essence of Malaysia's multicultural communities to provide value to local communities.

Keywords: Street art, roles and impact, graffiti, mural, 21st century

VUW 2022

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Consumers’ Challenges in Online Shoe Purchasing and Attitude Towards 3D Virtual Shoe Fitting Technology: A Qualitative Study of Women in China

Authors: Cao, Luying1; Koh, Chai Lin Pouline2; Wong, Sook Khuan3
Institution: 1,2The Design School, Taylor’s University, Malaysia, 3Saito University College, Malaysia Saito University College, Malaysia

Abstract: The increasing number of Internet users has made online shopping increasingly popular, with significant growth in e-commerce recently. The high return rate of online purchases, especially shoes, has been a common effect of online e-commerce for many years. The reasons behind the high return rate of shoes are wrong shoe types or sizes and poor shoe material. This study aims to explore online customers’ acceptance of the digital 3D virtual shoe fitting technology and apply it to online retailing. The findings reveal that most women consumers experience various difficulties during online shoe purchasing, and they wish the design of 3D fitting technology could recommend the right shoe type and size. Therefore, 3D shoe fitting technology can create a better online shopping experience for women consumers. The study contributes significantly towards helping e-customers select the most appropriate size during their online shopping experience and improving customer satisfaction. The study limitations include sample size and consumer market representation. Future research should emphasize the technical issues of 3D virtual shoe fitting, such as developing a fabric simulation effect and providing customers with a complete fitting evaluation.

Keywords: Online shopping, virtual fitting, shoe purchasing, shopping experience

Higher Education Engagement in Community Festivals: A Case Study of Hong Kong

Author: Fan, Sixin
Institution The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Abstract: Abstract Festivals are often seen as mirrors that reflect on social issues. This paper examines the festival management course offered by an institution of higher learning in Hong Kong. Community festivals, initiated by higher education institutions, aim to give voice to different local groups and strive for social change. Higher education imparts knowledge and skills through curating and managing community festivals as part of their learning outcomes. The community festival is then nurtured, developed, and transformed into an independent arts organization. The relationship between higher education and community festivals is further investigated. Several qualitative research methods are adopted, including content analysis, ethnography, participant observations, and semi-structured interviews. The evolution of community festivals has witnessed the changes of the times and curriculum in higher education. As an experimental pedagogy, community festivals enable students to apply theoretical knowledge to the practical world while the practice further points towards a new future direction in festival studies.

Keywords: Higher Education, Festival Management, Community Festival, Engagement, Hong Kong

Audience Development and China’s Double Reduction Policy: Taking Practices of a State-Funded Theatre Company as an Example

Author: Gong, Yidan.
Institution Taylor's University, Malaysia.

Abstract:In 2021, Chinese authorities issued the “double reduction” policy to ease the burden of excessive homework and off-campus tutoring for students undergoing compulsory education, regarded as the springtime for arts education. Consequently, arts institutions and companies seized this opportunity to develop audiences and potential new business opportunities. However, they were cautious about cost input and effectiveness. This study is based on Steven Hadley’s research framework and methodology that used a state-funded theatre company’s practices to examine audience development under a specific policy background. The impacts on equal access to publicly funded arts are discussed as well. The study contributions include filling the gap in audience development research based on Chinese cultural policy, enhancing the knowledge of practitioners and scholars across cultural and political ecologies, and providing strategies towards a public subsidy system that offers a more equitable policy balance between the democratization of culture and cultural democracy.

Keywords: cultural policy, audience development, double reduction policy

A Study on Miao Ethnic Batik Elements for Everyday Womenswear Design

Authors: Tang, Diya1; Koh, Chai Lin Pouline2; Wong, Sook Khuan3
Institution:1, 2 The Design School, Taylor’s University, Malaysia; 3Saito University College, Malaysia

Abstract:Ethnic elements have become a more apparent theme in contemporary fashion product development. Exploring suitable ethnic elements for product innovation is important for designing successful products. This study aims to identify the types of Miao batik elements which can be used in everyday womenswear through visual details and ethnic characteristic expressions to identify suitable Miao elements for product development. This study employed content analysis to further examine eight visual images collected from Miao habitations in Guizhou, China, based on the shape, color, pattern, and texture to summarize the design elements. The findings from Miao batik revealed that the pattern elements depict the Miao people’s aesthetics in pattern design and composition and their traditional totem worship culture. This study specifically focused on the visual analysis of Miao batik elements. These elements can be applied to womenswear and combined with modern fashion trends, expressing Miao characteristics based on color, pattern, texture, and shape. Future research should examine how fashion designers present these elements in womenswear. Keywords: Miao batik elements, Miao characteristics, Womenswear design

Ethical Dilemmas in Performing Arts Management During Covid-19: A Case Study in Hong Kong

Author: Tang, Xiaoyi
Institution: The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Abstract: Given the profound effects of the Covid -19 pandemic on the arts field, arts managers have to face fast-shifting work patterns and unprecedented ethical dilemmas. In addition to their original role of developing the arts, they also need to consider the health and rights issues of participants in artistic production and the management of special situations. Arts managers also help represent multiple parties, such as artists in the game, and deal with local policies. As they hold the most vital communication role in the arts industry, the ethical decisions made by arts managers and the factors influencing them will affect artists, arts organizations, audiences, and the local arts ecology. Using a performing arts organization in Hong Kong as a case study, this paper attempts to discover the ethical dilemmas faced by performing arts managers in Hong Kong during Covid-19 and their solutions, as well as the critical factors at play. It is hoped that this study will highlight the dilemmas performing arts organizations in Hong Kong encountered during the pandemic, including the shifts in the power relationships of the arts industry and cultural ecology. In the long term, this paper also seeks to provide insights into how to promote better equality and good moral principles in the arts industry in the post-pandemic era.

Keywords: Ethics, arts management, Covid-19, arts organizations in Hong Kong

Inclusive Communication Strategies for Mindful Slow Fashion

Author: Vaibbhavi Pruthviraj Ranavaade
Institution: Chitkara Design School, Chitkara University

Abstract: The new world emerges from several centuries of human evolution based on the need to innovate and discover the changing dynamics of sociocultural, technological, geopolitical, and economic factors that impact people, communities, and the environment. Understanding communication barriers leading to rising disparity in society and humankind’s clothing consumption is crucial for this study, which focuses on remedial communication strategies. Slow fashion is the opposite of fast fashion, which is based on human and ecological exploitation, overconsumption and eventually adding tons of synthetic waste to landfills. Slow fashion is about the ethical treatment of people and communities involved in making clothes and sensitizing wearers to the process involved in making the clothes. This exploratory paper is based on a review of the literature and primary observations. The case study discussions of craft-based slow fashion communication are further analyzed. The study aims to understand the impact on the well-being of the people making and wearing the clothes and the planet Earth. It also identifies effective communication strategies for a robust future in the mindful, slow fashion industry. The study reveals that the empathetic and collective action of various stakeholders in the handloom value chain is vital in implementing communication strategies for inclusive opportunities for growth and cultural sustainability.

Keywords: Human, Communities, empathy, sustainability, disparity

Defining Queer Art Parameters in Asia: Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea

Author: Wong, See Huat Kenneth
Institution: The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Abstract: This paper uses queer aesthetics to define what is queer art in a reverse manner to develop parameters for Asian queer art. Three queer artworks from Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea have been chosen. The analysis assesses their logic of creation, medium, thought process, creative output, and visual display. Subsequently, their inputs through the zoom interview have been consolidated as the main discussants. In short, this study has established five parameters for deepening the understanding of Asian queer art. In terms of “queer as a visual narrative”, the artists have consciously seen queer subjectivity as conversational material. With the “body as identity politics”, one of the most evident approaches in queer art creation is choosing the deceased queer artists (with AIDS) as the protagonist. However, all the art creation is, in one way or another, “set as artistic intervention” and not just queer art only. Given the short period of the exhibition, the queer art exhibition could be traced back as an excellent “ephemeral as archival” proof in outreach, let alone the possible iterations after. With the last parameter, “queer urbanism as sociological turn”, the younger Asian queer artist today is gaining visibility while the same dynamic has become passé in the West. Indeed, it is a consistent effort to undertake an active role in activism, artmaking, and history-making of queer art in Asia.

Keywords: Queer art, Asian queer, parameters, queer aesthetics, queer kinship

The Development of Functional Pants Design Method For Paralyzed Women Using Anthropometric Data

Authors: Xing, Lin1; Norsaadah Zakaria2
Institution: The Design School, Taylor’s University, Malaysia

Abstract: This review summarizes the most rational and practical design method based on the current technology by reviewing nine anthropometric-based designs of functional pants for female wheelchair users from 2017 until 2021. This study uses the horizontal comparison method to analyze the differences between the design paradigms. The design paradigm can be divided into anthropometry, pattern making, and trial-fitting experiment. The review finds that 3D anthropometry and virtual human modeling are the most popular technologies in wheelchair functional pants design. Although the measurement tools and modeling methods are different, capturing human data more quickly and constructing block patterns more accurately is the general trend.

Keywords: Functional pants, Design method, Anthropometric data, 3D scanning, Virtual model

A Study on Multimedia Design Used in Shaping the City Image in Zhengzhou, China

Authors: Xu, Chen1; Koh, Chai Lin Pouline2; Wong, Sook Khuan3
Institution: 1, 2The Design School, Taylor’s University, Malaysia; 3Saito University College, Malaysia

Abstract: Multimedia design in the city has become a trend presently. City image design reflects the unique city brand and the personality of cities. Nevertheless, numerous existing static displays are applied on the city signs, which do not meet the needs of today's smart city evolution. Hence, the situation limits the public communication of the city's image and decreases the emotional interaction between the city and its citizens. This study aims to examine the application of multimedia used in shaping Zhengzhou’s city image. Observably, 51.97% of the respondents stated that the city image of Zhengzhou did not make a deep impression on them, while 38.21% viewed the city image as a poor “visual symbol” promotion. Meanwhile, 12.36% perceived that the city has a good image with considerable room for improvement. The results also disclosed that 48.66% of the respondents regarded the "Erqi Tower" as the most representative element of the city. Additionally, 50.29% of the citizens highlighted the "Erqi Tower" as the landmark of Zhengzhou in the new city construction as an important image. The study limitation is that the survey used a convenience sampling method, which is only suitable for preliminary pilot tests.
Future research should invite professional designers to conduct interviews on designing multimedia display content to explore the combination of culture and technology further. This study contributes to the body of knowledge by improving Zhengzhou’s city brand and the construction of a smart city.

Keywords: Visual symbol; Multimedia; City image; Zhengzhou; Smart city

Lighting Design for Human Gathering During the Pandemic: A Case Study of Public Light Art “Urban Sun”

Authors: Yang, Yi Hsuan Rochelle1; Roosegaarde, Daan2
Institution: 1Art and Design Program, The Hang Seng University of Hong Kong; 2Studio Roosegaarde

Abstract: Abstract During the pandemic, social distancing affected our social life and took a toll on our emotional health. Many people turned to the arts for comfort and to cope with social isolation and frustration. Historically, humans have always been visually expressive beings. Art has delivered messages and created an impact on us over the centuries. In recent years, innovative digital technology has enabled lighting design to reach new horizons and go beyond its fundamental functions of illumination and decoration, especially during critical times. Investigating the development, contribution, and effectiveness of lighting design in the field of environmental design is now needed.
The study utilizes lighting sanitization to combat viruses and provide people with a “safe zone” in public spaces. It is an experiment of the human psychology and social impact of creating a space for art where viruses cannot be transmitted. The UV light, part of the artistic expression, is also used to neutralize the coronavirus. How does lighting design facilitate human interaction and communication? Do people respond to art differently when they feel safe without their masks on? How do we raise environmental awareness through the art of light?
The paper presents a case study of “Urban Sun” by Dutch Artist Daan Roosegaarde and his team. It is the world's first large-scale light display that also cleans public spaces of the coronavirus to facilitate human gatherings. There will be an in-depth discussion on methods used to combine creativity, technology, and science to enhance environmental protection and awareness through public light installation.

Keywords: UVC light, sanitization, public art, installation, Urban Sun

Factors Affecting Music Promotion on Short Video Platforms—A Case Study of TikTok in China

Author: Zhou, Mengchen
Institution: Shenzhen University, China

Abstract: Short videos play an increasingly crucial role nowadays, enabling users to obtain more information quickly and engage spontaneously. Douyin (a Chinese version of TikTok) is the leading and most popular music-based app among short video platforms in China. The music usage on TikTok mainly serves two purposes: background music and music marketing. Regardless of the aim, the use of music will encourage more people to engage in video production. This action leads to viral videos where the music used gains instant popularity. Nevertheless, little research has examined the elements of music promotion on short-time platforms and whether these apps are a friendly marketing strategy for unknown musicians. This study used a text analysis method with data from TikTok to identify the factors leading to successful music promotion and uncover possibilities for musicians to gain fame in the digital world.

Keywords: Music Promotion, Short Video Platform, Music factors, Video factors

Liberalisation of Indian Graphic Design as a cultural paradigm

Author: Ayushi Jain
Institution: Lasalle College of the Arts

Abstract: When a piece of design fails to convey who it is for, where it comes from, and why it looks a certain way, it loses its purpose. During 19th-century British rule, colonists selfishly appropriated India's art and design culture to suit their aesthetic sensibilities. This takeover kick-started India's design identity depreciation and put Euro-American design at the forefront. Furthermore, globalisation created design standards focusing on western norms and portrayed Indian ornamentation and aesthetics as kitsch. With the development of the digital era, international design became very easy to access through media platforms; hence Indian designers started getting more influenced. This toxic cycle continued to push India's ethnic identity to the back burner, and design in India began to lose its cultural context. This dissertation aims to identify the circumstances that led to the loss of a defined ethnic identity and emphasizes the role of Indian designers in building it back up.

Keywords: Indian design, cultural semiotics, nationalism, Westernisation, ethnic inspiration