List of Volumes

Volume 1

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Highlights of the Study of Sound for Animation: Designing Sound with a Low Budget

Authors: Teoh, Lee Suan Jasmine; Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: There is a noticeable amount of research on sound design, with emphasis on the importance of sound in media. This article touches on the highlights of sound in animation, in terms of the challenges of sound design and how to overcome them. The researcher hypothesizes that ‘Good quality sound in animation can be created with a low budget’. A new understanding on the topic of sound design and animation was proposed, while applying the knowledge from existing research by other scholars. Sound design can be accomplished with a reasonable budget and it involves the sound designer to create sound through movements and feelings. These were the conclusions made by the researcher based on the research findings that were obtained through two qualitative methods of research (online interview and visual analysis), in which the findings were presented, analysed and discussed. This article may contain faults and errors as it is still a crude study on the topic itself. Further research is needed for a more detailed justification of the current conclusions.

Keywords: Sound design, animation, low budget productions, sound performance, sound perception, Foley

Empathy for Fictional Characters

Authors: Teoh, Hoong Boon Julius; Noorhayati Saad
Institution The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Character design is often regarded as one of the most popular mediums in the field of creative multimedia. Reasons for this can range from aesthetic appeal to affinity towards the characters. A decent amount of research and study has been done throughout the years, formulating a basic pipeline and standard for a good character design. One such standard is that of storytelling via a character and creating characters that are relatable, believable, and invoke empathy in the observer. This research delves into how a character conveys and aids in the development of a story and the value behind creating believable and relatable characters. Data from various demographics was collected via an online survey and a visual analysis was conducted. Based on the findings, the researcher discovered that while the general audience may not have experience in design or media, they are still able to appreciate well-developed characters. The visual analysis also shows that recent characters designed to carry a fair trace of storytelling and elements to make them seem more believable or life-like. Hopefully these findings helps in enlightening up and coming as well as adept character designers in the value of creating deeper, more meaningful characters.

Keywords: Character design, narrative, concept art, game design, player engagement.

Exploring Children’s Learning Experience Created by Design Elements in Interactive Books

Authors: Saraswati, Katarina Indira Dyah; Koh, Chai Lin Pouline; Yip, Jinchi
Institution The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Books play an important role in the teaching and learning for children. Unfortunately, digital devices are slowly taking a steady control over individual lives, making books become a less important learning tool. Despite the children’s book industry innovating and revolutionising to bring children back to reading books in print, there has not been much attention paid to the interactivity among children and the design elements used in interactive books. Through observation, this study examined the learning experience through interactive books with two groups of Malaysian and Indonesian children aged between 5 and 8. In addition, the influence of design elements to these children when reading the books were further investigated. Results revealed that when reading interactive books, response is the most significant compared to interactivity and engagement. The spontaneous responses are associated with the design elements used in the interactive books. The elements of surprise created by pop-ups and pull-tabs are the most appealing ones to the children. Not only were they visually engaged with these elements, they also interacted and actively responded with each other during the reading process. The findings of this study show that children’s learning experience can be a more enjoyable process if emphasis is paid to using appropriate design elements when designing an interactive book.

Keywords: Graphic design, interactive books, interactive elements, childhood reading, learning method of children

The Role of Whitespace in Visual Communication Design

Authors: Aminath, Rausha; Koh, Chai Lin Pouline; Yip, Jinchi
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Designers use whitespace as a design element to create visual aesthetics and enhance layouts. However, most designers fail to consider the importance of whitespace in readability and navigation control. There are limited research studies on its importance and role in enhancing layouts in relation to these functions. To study the role whitespace plays in designs, this study was conducted by adopting a visual analysis of 4 layouts and a survey of 54 respondents. Evaluation of Active Whitespace (AWS), Passive Whitespace (PWS), the readability and navigation control were conducted by providing samples with manipulation of different levels of whitespace. Notably the results showed that although a significant number of people prefer access to more information which they see as a guide for good navigation, the majority believes that the less they see, the more they can focus resulting in easier readability and navigation as it created a simple and aesthetical layout for viewers. The results indicate that there is a significant importance of whitespace in the readability of websites, articles and posters.

Keywords: Whitespace, graphic design, advertising, design principles, visual communication

The Preliminary Findings of UX Design on Social Media Saputra,

Authors: Tamara Audrey; Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: Many social media that had once gained fame, have now suddenly dimmed and vanished. However, there are similar social media that have remained shining. Social media has become an integral part of our lives that we spend hours on it. This article reveals the preliminary findings of the influence of the user experience on social media engagement and the elements of user engagement that support the viability of social media. Consequently, the research answered the questions of how UX design influences user engagement in social media and the elements that help to sustain its viability. In this context, user engagement refers to both passive consumption and active participation within the social media platforms. An online survey with 136 participants and visual analysis of three established social media, namely Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat was conducted. Analysis of the survey responses showed that UX design influences user engagement through both pragmatic and hedonic qualities. Meanwhile, the visual analysis demonstrated patterns of persuasive and emotional design. Based on the results, it emphasizes the need for creating an application that is not only usable but also exciting and also to integrate persuasive and emotional design in order to remain viable in the market.

Keywords: User experience, design, social media, persuasive.

Cultural Identity and Promotional Designs in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

Authors: Wong, Zen Yee Zoe; Koh, Chai Lin Pouline; Yip, Jinchi
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.

Abstract: With the tourism boom happening in Sabah, its capital city Kota Kinabalu (KK) has improved its necessary and supporting infrastructure in the industry. However, when those infrastructures outshine the original cultural identity of KK, not only the perception towards the cultural identity of KK seem unclear among the younger generations and tourists, many of its existing promotional designs are found duplicated from other parts of the world. This is perceived to be lack of originality. It is believed that cultural identity translated through creative works are highly associated to economies of innovation and tourism. Thus, in this research two focus groups and a total of 104 surveys were conducted with the objective to examine the perception of the cultural identity and its existing promotional designs in KK. Results showed that the tourism advertisements overshadowed the cultural identity of KK where its actual identity was hard to be identified among the respondents. The research also disclosed that the respondents are only able to distinguish the cultural identity of KK through mural artworks done by locals, but not historical heritage artifacts. The findings provide insights and consideration for the town council and local artists to rethink the importance of preserving KK’s cultural identity as a consequence to the continuous growth of tourism in the city.

Keywords: Cultural identity, promotional design, Kota Kinabalu, tourism, city branding

Download Issue 2

Elements of Maldivian Folklore Character Design

Authors: Ahmed Baahy Suhail; Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University

Abstract: This article will revolve around the conceptualization of a Maldivian folklore character design. The use of character design in raising awareness towards Maldivian culture is justified. The methodology which is used to create a Maldivian character is explained using the elements of character design learned and these are intended for future use of animated folk tales. Animation can help to not only preserve a dying element such as Maldivian folk culture and reconnect locals to their cultural roots, but also appeal to a global audience that has not yet seen such an intimate side of the Maldives, which is currently only recognized through tourism. A questionnaire and survey were put forward to locals and experts respectively in order to gather information that would help towards this. Secondary sources were also evaluated to better understand character design and the main elements that must exist within a character. The findings reflect the opinion and perspective of Maldivian locals which are pivotal to the overall success of this future character. From these findings, the author was able to establish the main elements required for a successful and authentic Maldivian folklore character design.

Keywords: Character Design, Animation, Culture, Folklore, The Maldives

Graphic Design and Public Awareness in Lifesaving

Authors: Chan, Qian Hui; Yip, Jinchi
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University

Abstract: In the field of lifesaving where public awareness plays a major role, graphic designers are one of the underutilized assets who could potentially educate the public on the role of lifesaving. This research aims to provide designers an insight on using effective design principles to educate the public on lifesaving and brings light onto the research topic. The research investigates the importance of graphic design specifically posters in educating the Malaysian public about the role of lifesaving. A survey was conducted to collect feedback from 80 Malaysians regarding their awareness on lifesaving and effectiveness of lifesaving posters. Professionals and students from the medical and design field were interviewed to comment on 6 current lifesaving posters in terms of accuracy of information and design. This research finds that existing lifesaving posters are not following the principles of graphic design. Additionally, the contexts of posters are not accurate as there is inconsistency in information on the steps of lifesaving while some even miss out crucial information. Although graphic design in lifesaving is on the rise recently in Malaysia, the current public awareness on this topic is still low in Malaysia.

Keywords: Lifesaving, graphic design, public awareness, CPR, AED

Player Identification in Relation to Character Customisation

Authors: Pung, Daryl Xi Ern; Noorhayati Saad
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University

Abstract: In our modern era, technology is constantly developing and evolving in different ways. Throughout the years, the ever-expanding list of game genres is becoming increasingly diverse, bringing in new revolutionary elements that could significantly shape a specific category. The subject of video games usually focuses on gameplay mechanics, and most players believe this to play a vital role in creating a successful game. While that may be true, what many tend to ignore is the impact of character customisation. The influence on the inclusivity of customisable characters is an area that is often ignored in the field of video game and character design research. As it was revealed that there was a significant correlation between the player’s identity and their character’s appearance, this article takes an in-depth look at the factors that influenced players in determining the portrayal of their character during character customisation. Additionally, the type of character customisation was wholly dependent on the game’s genre. This will be further elaborated and discussed in the findings.
Keywords: Customisation, Characters, Video games, Identification

The Use of Design Elements and Principles in Movie Posters

Authors: Wong, Kai Yi; Yip, Jinchi
Institution: The Design School, Faculty of Innovation and Technology, Taylor’s University, Malaysia

Abstract: Designers apply the use of design elements and principles (DEP) in movie posters to convey an intended message. This article touches on the four main DEP used in movie posters as well as how they are used to convey an intended message. This article discusses how DEP are used in movie posters to bring out the intended message. For the research, two methodologies were employed to curate six movie posters from three movie genres (horror, fantasy and romance). The two methodologies include visual analysis and survey by questionnaire. From the visual analysis, the researcher determined the four main DEP in movie posters which are imagery, typography, colour and overall composition. Through both methodologies, it was found that imagery is the most prominent of the four DEP in conveying the message of a movie. The researcher discusses how the DEP used in movie posters work together to bring out the setting, mood, character, genre, and overall message of the movies. These findings expand our understanding on the use of DEP in movie posters which affect how the message of a movie is conveyed.

Keywords: Graphic design, design elements, design principles, movie posters